Busse et al randomized 419 inner-city kids (age 6-20) with uncontrolled, skin-test-positive, mostly severe allergic asthma and IgE < 1,300 IU/mL to 60 weeks of omalizumab or placebo. The treated group had modest improvements: ~1 fewer day of symptoms per month and a 5% absolute reduction in hospitalizations (1.5% vs 6.3%); 18% fewer of them [… read more]
As Andy Rooney might say, “With all the diagnoses doctors like to make these days, didjever wonder if anyone is actually healthy anymore?” When it comes to heart health, according to Bambs et al, the answer is yes: one person is. Circulation 2011;123:850-857.
Critical care for patients with stroke. Lukovits TG, CHEST 2011;139:694-700.
After analyzing all AstraZeneca’s clinical trials data on budesonide for asthma (26 placebo-controlled, n~14,000; 60 non-placebo-controlled, n~33,000), O’Byrne et al found no increased risk of pneumonia with use of budesonide by asthmatics, who contracted 1-2 detected pneumonias per 100 patient-years of treatment. AJRCCM 2011;183:589-595.
DVT of the upper extremity: Kucher N, NEJM 2011;364:861-869.
Sacanella et al prospectively observed 230 generally healthy, cognitively intact, highly functional & independently living Spaniards 65 years or older (mean age 75) after urgent admission to a single MICU. About half received mechanical ventilation (54%). Seventy died in-hospital; 48 died within a year, for a one-year survival of 49%. But among the 112 survivors, [… read more]
Roquilly et ses amis francais randomized 150 critically ill victims of severe French trauma to hydrocortisone or placebo for 7 days. The treated group had an absolute 16-19% lower risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia, the primary endpoint (36% vs. 51-54% depending on which intention-to-treat analysis you prefer, p=0.007 to 0.01). (n=150). JAMA 2011;305:1201-1209.
The effect of light on critical illness. Castro R, Critical Care 2011; 15:218
Fernandez-Cerrano et al randomized 56 people with CAP in Spain (only 3 needed mechanical ventilation) to receive methylprednisolone bolus-and-taper or placebo, in addition to ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. The steroid-treated group had less hypoxemia (lower PaO2/FiO2). (n=56). Critical Care 2011;15:R96. FREE FULL TEXT MORE ON THIS: In AJRCCM 2005, Confalonieri found less septic shock and need [… read more]
New treatments against gram-negative organisms. Bassetti M, Critical Care 2011;15:215. New antibiotics review.
Accurso et al report phase 3 results from industry-funded TIGER-1, testing t.i.d. inhaled denufusol (an ion channel regulator that alters sodium/chloride transport to improve mucociliary clearance) vs. placebo in early cystic fibrosis (FEV1>74% predicted). After 24 weeks, FEV1 was 45 mL better in the treated group, most of whom were younger than age 19. There [… read more]
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Harari S, Eur Resp Review 2011;20:34-44. LAM review.
Warfarin is the best drug for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. In people with a-fib for whom warfarin was unsuitable (unstable INR, unlikely adherence, etc, but excluding those with prior bleeding on warfarin), twice daily oral direct Xa inhibitor apixaban had a hazard ratio of 0.45 over aspirin for the primary outcome of stroke (absolute [… read more]
Normal sleep in African-Americans and Caucasians: Ruiter ME, Sleep Medicine 2011;12:209-214. Race & racial differences in sleep review.
Valdyanathan et al gave prednisolone 25 mg (equivalent to prednisone) or placebo daily for 2 weeks to sufferers of chronic rhinosinusitis in the UK, followed by 8 months of nasal fluticasone (drops, then spray) for all. The orally-treated group had a 2.1-point fall in their polyp grade and could smell better, at 6 months. Ann [… read more]
Occupational asthma – Assessment, treatment, compensation: Cowl TC, CHEST 2011;139:674-681.
How “hard” should we “hit” our patients with Lasix? And does that hurt? Felker et al asked that (sort of) in a NHLBI-funded trial. They gave furosemide to 308 patients hospitalized for ADHF in an IV dose either equivalent to their home dose, or at 2.5 times their home dose, and either at q12-hour intervals [… read more]
Pulmonary Sarcoidosis: Concise Clinical Review. Baughman RP, AJRCCM 2011;183:573-581.
Treating NSCLC with tyrosine kinase / EGFR inhibitors erlotinib & gefitinib: Cataldo VD, NEJM 2011;364:947-955. Non small cell lung cancer chemotherapy treatment review.
Radiation risks from imaging; pharmacy and lactation; critical illness; interventional chest procedures; asthma; smoking; cystic fibrosis; pneumonia; infiltrative lung diseases; pulmonary embolism; pulmonary hypertension, and sleep-disordered breathing in pregnancy. Coming in just under 200 pages. Clinics in Chest Medicine 2011;32:1-198.