Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Granton J, et al. Interobserver variability in applying a radiographic definition for ARDS. Chest 1999;116:1347-53. Interobserver agreement was only moderate for diagnosing ARDS among 21 experts using consensus radiographic criteria.
Hudson LD et al. Clinical risks for development of ARDS. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:293-301. Incidence of ARDS in patients with various risk factors. Showed that ARDS develops within 48 to 72 hours of the time clinical risk is identified in the vast majority of patients.