PulmCCM

The PulmCCM team writes the posts under this moniker. Read the About page for more of the PulmCCM story.

Dec 072018
 
More labeled warnings on fluoroquinolones ordered by FDA

Fluoroquinolone warning labels keep getting longer. In 2018 the U.S. FDA ordered stronger cautions about mental health side effects, and severe hypoglycemia causing coma and death. Mental health disturbances now attributed to fluoroquinolones include: Attention disturbances Disorientation Agitation Nervousness Short-term memory loss Delirium The risk of hypoglycemic coma now gets a specific mention on the [… read more]

Dec 072018
 
Why are obese people more likely to survive infections and sepsis?

Obese people are significantly more likely to survive severe illness due to infections, as compared to people with normal weights, according to analyses of three large data sets presented at a European conference. Among more than 1.5 million hospitalizations for pneumonia in the U.S. between 2013-2014, obese patients (BMI > 30) were 29% more likely [… read more]

Nov 292018
 
Delay renal replacement in severe sepsis with acute kidney injury: IDEAL-ICU

Another large study suggests that there is no benefit to early initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with severe sepsis with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). And many patients whose renal replacement was delayed recovered sufficient kidney function to avoid dialysis entirely. Because AKI is associated with worse outcomes in critical [… read more]

Nov 172018
 
Home non-invasive ventilation reduced health costs in severe COPD

by Ed Susman, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today SAN DIEGO — Noninvasive ventilation aimed for use at home by late-stage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) actually saves patients and the healthcare system money by helping to keep individuals out of the hospital and doctors’ offices, researchers said here. Nightly home noninvasive ventilation (commonly called BiPAP) was [… read more]

Nov 102018
 
Oral Anticoagulants in the ICU: Clinical Review

Oral Anticoagulants in the ICU: A summary of the evidence for efficacy in atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, and unique clinical cases Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended as the preferred treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and as a first-line option for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), but warfarin may be preferred in certain [… read more]

Nov 102018
 
Intubation or bag-mask ventilation: Outcomes similar for cardiac arrest patients

Well-done bag-mask ventilation can produce adequate gas exchange for the vast majority of cardiac arrest patients, but does not provide a secure airway and is physically taxing. Patients in cardiac arrest undergoing CPR tend to immediately receive bag-mask ventilation, which is often interrupted to perform endotracheal intubation. To facilitate intubation, chest compressions may also be [… read more]

Nov 042018
 
Don't use procalcitonin to withhold antibiotics in severe COPD exacerbations

Procalcitonin (PCT) is an FDA-approved test for use in guiding clinical decisions on starting, continuing, or stopping antibiotics in patients with lower respiratory tract infections, such as community-acquired pneumonia. Procalcitonin is also approved for use in determining whether to stop antibiotics. Most of the small studies testing procalcitonin-driven algorithms have shown the method to be generally safe [… read more]

Oct 242018
 
FDA approves dupilumab, injectible biologic, for eosinophilic asthma

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dupilumab (Dupixent, Sanofi/Regeneron) as “add-on maintenance therapy in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma aged 12 years and older with an eosinophilic phenotype or with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma,” according to the manufacturer’s news release. In randomized trials, asthmatic patients with higher blood eosinophil counts (≥ 150 cells/µL) failing corticosteroid [… read more]

Oct 232018
 
Antipsychotics don't help in ICU delirium: MIND-USA

Neither typical antipsychotics (haloperidol) or newer antipsychotics (ziprasidone) were effective in treating delirium in critically ill patients, in a major randomized trial. The results call into question widely used pharmacologic treatments for ICU delirium. Authors enrolled 1,183 adult patients at medical or surgical ICUs at 16 U.S. medical centers who developed delirium while critically ill [… read more]

Oct 172018
 
Seven days (or fewer) of corticosteroids advised for severe COPD exacerbations: GOLD

How many days of steroids should be taken by people with COPD exacerbations severe enough to require hospitalization? In 2013, the REDUCE trial (JAMA) suggested five days of systemic corticosteroids are as good as longer 10-14 day courses, among 314 patients hospitalized with severe COPD exacerbations. This contradicted the prevailing GOLD guidelines at the time, [… read more]

Oct 142018
 
Procalcitonin strategy in the ED did not reduce antibiotic use (ProACT)

Procalcitonin-driven algorithms did not lead to lower antibiotic use for suspected pneumonias in the emergency department, in a large randomized trial. The multicenter ProACT trial enrolled 1,656 patients presenting with symptoms of pneumonia at multiple emergency departments. Patients were randomized to receive care guided by procalcitonin results (with thresholds to guide initiation or withholding of antibiotics), [… read more]

Oct 042018
 
Targeting normal oxygen saturation associated with death: meta-analysis

A new meta-analysis adds to the evidence that liberal use of supplemental oxygen may be harmful in acutely ill, hospitalized patients. Authors performed a meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials of acutely ill patients (total n ~ 16,000) treated with strategies of either “low” or “high” supplemental oxygenation. Although the cutoffs varied between studies, patients receiving [… read more]

Oct 022018
 
Dentists may be at high risk for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, data suggest

The CDC warned in its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report that dentists may be at significantly higher risk for developing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, compared to the general population. In a sample of 894 patients with IPF with records over 20 years at a Virginia specialty clinic, CDC discovered that 8 dentists (and one dental technician) [… read more]

Sep 262018
 
Endobronchial valves now FDA approved for severe COPD

In the lungs of patients with severe emphysema (COPD), relatively large spaces previously containing lung tissue (obliterated by smoking) become filled with stagnant air that doesn’t circulate with breathing. This ominously-named “dead-space ventilation” reduces the overall mechanical efficiency of breathing, often causing disabling dyspnea. Lung volume reduction surgery (cutting out the dead space, usually at [… read more]

Sep 172018
 

by Salynn Boyles, MedPage Today Contributing Writer Treatment with the first approved once-daily, single inhaler triple therapy for COPD resulted in a significantly lower rate of exacerbations, as well as better lung function and quality of life compared to dual therapy in patients with a history of exacerbations, researchers reported. Results from the huge IMPACT trial supported an [… read more]

Sep 132018
 
ECMO fails as first-line treatment for ARDS. Or did it?

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an accepted salvage therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after conventional mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes, neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning have failed. ECMO has been proposed as the ultimate lung protection strategy for ARDS, because it bypasses the lungs entirely. So why shouldn’t it be first-line [… read more]

Sep 132018
 
New MRI technology could predict outcome after cardiac arrest

Brain damage with severe cognitive and functional impairment are common after cardiac arrest, but far from universal. Even after thorough testing, most comatose patients receive an indeterminate neurologic prognosis post-arrest. Physicians faced with this uncertainty have a difficult task in counseling family members trying to make decisions to maximize their loved one’s chances for recovery [… read more]

Sep 052018
 
Subsegmental pulmonary embolism: anticoagulation or observation?

As the use of chest CT-angiograms in emergency departments and medical wards has risen by more than tenfold, so has the discovery of small pulmonary emboli of unclear clinical significance. These PEs are often isolated to distal (subsegmental) branches of the pulmonary artery, without concurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Small distal PEs may be incidentally [… read more]