PulmCCM

The PulmCCM team writes the posts under this moniker. Read the About page for more of the PulmCCM story.

Sep 132018
 
New MRI technology could predict outcome after cardiac arrest

Brain damage with severe cognitive and functional impairment are common after cardiac arrest, but far from universal. Even after thorough testing, most comatose patients receive an indeterminate neurologic prognosis post-arrest. Physicians faced with this uncertainty have a difficult task in counseling family members trying to make decisions to maximize their loved one’s chances for recovery [… read more]

Sep 052018
 
Subsegmental pulmonary embolism: anticoagulation or observation?

As the use of chest CT-angiograms in emergency departments and medical wards has risen by more than tenfold, so has the discovery of small pulmonary emboli of unclear clinical significance. These PEs are often isolated to distal (subsegmental) branches of the pulmonary artery, without concurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Small distal PEs may be incidentally [… read more]

Aug 192018
 
Seven days of antibiotics were as good as 14 for gram-negative bacteremia

Two-week antibiotic courses have been considered standard care for most patients with bacteremia who do not have sepsis or an untreated primary source (e.g. endocarditis). No good evidence ever supported the practice, which was supported mainly by retrospective data in patients with sepsis. A new study suggests that treating gram-negative bacteremia for seven days is [… read more]

Aug 192018
 
Aspirin Appears Protective in COPD Patients

by Ed Susman, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today SAN DIEGO – Patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are also on aspirin therapy appear to have a lower rate of COPD exacerbations, researchers reported at the annual conference of the American Thoracic Society. The risk of experiencing any acute exacerbation of COPD was reduced by 18% among [… read more]

Aug 162018
 
Extended antibiotic infusions could save lives: Here's how to do it

By Thomas C. Neal, PharmD According to a meta-analysis of randomized trials, prolonged infusions of antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics could save lives. However, obstacles to implementing pharmacodynamically optimized administration practices have slowed the adoption of this practice in most ICUs:1 The requirement for IV pumps, preferably smart IV pumps, is potentially problematic in resource-limited settings or on wards [… read more]

Aug 122018
 
Asthma patients should use ICS-LABA for rescue as well as maintenance, SMART says

In Europe, patients with asthma have long been advised to take more puffs of their combination inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting beta-agonist (ICS-LABA) inhaler during periods of increased asthma symptoms. In the U.S., patients are instead advised to use albuterol as their rescue inhaler, and stick firmly to the usual maintenance dose of ICS-LABA regardless of symptom severity. [… read more]

Aug 122018
 
Increasing inhaled steroids to abort asthma attacks: does it work?

When patients with asthma feel their symptoms worsening and fear a full-blown exacerbation is imminent, what should they do? Doctors and researchers have never found a good answer to this question for most patients. The options are, generally: 1) continue current controller inhalers and observing; 2) increase the dose of inhaled steroid inhalers; or 3) [… read more]

Aug 032018
 
Scheduled nebulization with acetylcysteine didn't help ventilated patients

by Salynn Boyles, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Regular nebulization proved to be no more effective than nebulization on demand in a randomized trial involving critically ill patients receiving invasive ventilation, researchers reported. Among ICU patients expected to need invasive ventilation for at least 24 hours, scheduled nebulization four times a day involving acetylcysteine with salbutamol did not [… read more]

Jul 252018
 
FDA approves new hyperkalemia drug Lokelma

The FDA approved oral sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), to be marketed as Lokelma, for the treatment of hyperkalemia. The drug seems to work better than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), reducing serum potassium levels within an hour and restoring normal levels after about 2 hours in most patients. The drug was tested against placebo (not Kayexalate) [… read more]

Jul 202018
 
Prophylactic Precedex prevented delirium in ICU patients

Quick Take: This small (n=100), two-center, industry-funded (Hospira) study showed a remarkable 80% prevention rate of ICU delirium (compared to 20% with placebo) with patients given dexmedetomidine prophylactically during their ICU stay. Although associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients, delirium is not known to be an independent predictor of those outcomes. This small [… read more]

Jul 202018
 
Pulmonary Embolism Causes <1% of Syncope in ER, Study Argues

by Nicole Lou, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Researchers concluded from a large retrospective study that pulmonary embolism is unlikely to cause syncope that results in a trip to the emergency room. Fewer than 1% of nearly 1.7 million patients treated at emergency departments for syncope had pulmonary embolism, according to databases from Canada, Denmark, Italy, and the [… read more]

Jul 192018
 
Prophylactic haloperidol did not prevent delirium in the ICU: REDUCE trial

Delirium occurs in a large proportion of critically ill patients, and ICU patients who get delirious tend to have longer hospital stays and higher mortality. However, it has never been shown that delirium independently increases the risk for poor outcomes, or is just a fellow traveler with severe illness, i.e., a signal of more severe [… read more]

Jul 152018
 
How to manage bleeding from oral anticoagulant drugs

The new generation of oral anticoagulants have revolutionized management of venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation. The changes in clinical practice have also created new questions and confusion around management of bleeding associated with these newer anticoagulants. The American College of Cardiology issued an expert consensus document in December 2017 to help guide physicians on the [… read more]

Jul 152018
 
Should antibiotics for sepsis be given in the ambulance?

Observational studies of patients in sepsis strongly suggest that outcomes are improved by giving antibiotics as soon as possible after recognition of sepsis. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recently decided everyone with suspected sepsis should receive antibiotics within one hour of emergency department arrival. So why not give antibiotics before the patient even arrives to the [… read more]

Jul 082018
 
Ceftazidime and avibactam (Avycaz) approved for hospital-acquired pneumonias

The FDA approved a new indication for the antibiotic combination ceftazidime and avibactam (marketed as Avycaz), for treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults. The drug was approved originally in 2015 for complicated intra-abdominal infections (in combination with metronidazole) and got another indication in 2017 for complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. The [… read more]

Jul 082018
 
Hospitalists Are the New Intensivists

Intensivists may get all the credit, but over 37,000 hospitalists provide much of the care for ICU patients in the U.S. According to a recent survey, they often do it without the presence or availability of intensivists for consultation or support, especially outside urban centers. The internists aren’t happy about it, feeling uncomfortable, unsupported and [… read more]