Sep 062019
 
Prophylactic IVC filters prevent PE in high-risk trauma patients, but were often unnecessary

Inferior vena cava filters placed prophylactically in patients hospitalized for trauma prevented symptomatic pulmonary embolism in those patients with persistent contraindications to anticoagulation, in a significant randomized trial. However, prophylactic IVC filter placement for all post-trauma patients did not improve outcomes generally. Trauma teams have always faced a difficult dilemma in the prevention and treatment [… read more]

Sep 032019
 
Advisory from CDC re: Severe Pulmonary Disease Associated with Using E-Cigarette Products

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and distributed here in the interest of the public health. PulmCCM is not affiliated with the CDC. Distributed via the CDC Health Alert Network August 30, 2019, 0935 AM ET (9:35 AM ET) CDCHAN-00421 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is providing: 1) background [… read more]

Sep 022019
 

Update 9/6/19: we removed the video at Jon’s request.  Frequent PulmCCM contributor Jon-Emile Kenny is also a co-founder of the medical device start-up Flosonics Medical who (as I understand it) are working to develop and market a wearable ultrasound patch that would help direct fluid resuscitation and vasopressor use in patients in shock. PulmCCM has [… read more]

Aug 302019
 
New Definition for Pulmonary Hypertension in Left Heart Disease: Haunted by how we measure the wedge?

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “I know that character exists from the outside alone.  I know that inside the body there’s just temperature.” -Sheila Heti Background: DPG versus PVR  In 1971, the use of the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure gradient [DPG] was introduced to better refine the hemodynamic definition of pulmonary vascular disease.  What is the [… read more]

Aug 232019
 
APRV and Esophageal Manometry: a new way to titrate T-Low?

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “I had some dreams, they were clouds in my coffee, clouds in my coffee …” -Carly Simon Background  A recent letter to the editor in Critical Care posed a rather provocative question – ‘Are we really preventing lung collapse with APRV?’  The authors cited a case report of esophageal manometry used in [… read more]

Jul 182019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Venous Doppler & Veno-Cardiac Coupling – Part 2

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] In part 1, the basics of ventriculo-arterial coupling [VAC] were described and related to the Guyton Diagram.  In this second part, the notion of cardiac performance [Eh] is explored in relation to venous Doppler velocimetry.  Subsequently, I hypothesize that ‘veno-cardiac uncoupling’ – a concept analogous to VAC – is a [… read more]

Jul 172019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Venous Doppler & Veno-Cardiac Coupling – Part 1

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] Background Concepts have been clanging around my head since I participated in Philippe Rola’s [@thinkingCC] sedulous Hospitalist & Resuscitationist Conference in Montreal.  Initially, the abstractions of ventriculo-arterial coupling, Guytonian physiology and venous Doppler seemed insuperably sundered; but the cognitive haranguing recently gave way to harmony. What is ventriculo-arterial coupling and [… read more]

Jun 302019
 
Intravenous Fluids Act as Inotropes in Recent Sepsis Study

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “I’ve looked at clouds from both sides now …” -Joni Mitchell Background In a recent physiological study – brought to my attention by the erudite and kinetic [@iceman_ex] – the detailed physiological effects of intravenous fluids, norepinephrine and dobutamine were sequentially evaluated in patients with sepsis.  Sepsis was defined as [… read more]

Jun 092019
 
Dexmedetomidine helpful but inadequate alone for sedation (SPICE III)

In a new randomized trial, use of dexmedetomidine (Precedex) as the primary sedative in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU resulted in no reduction in 90 day mortality. Dexmedetomidine resulted in a small improvement in delirium and ventilator days, but was almost never adequate to sedate patients on its own, and brought a small increase [… read more]

Jun 032019
 
Applied Respiratory Physiology for the Ventilator: A Workshop from the Hospitalist & Resuscitationist Conference

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds.” -George Eliot Considering the independent and dependent variables of ventilation marked my final contribution to the “Hospitalist and the Resuscitationist” conference in Montreal, Canada; I gave a workshop on graphical analyses of ventilation.  This began with the basics of [… read more]

May 302019
 
Neuromuscular blockade for ARDS was no help, in supine patients

Continuous neuromuscular blockade for severe ARDS became common practice after the ACURASYS trial (2010) showed it reduced mortality by an absolute 9%. A larger trial, ROSE, now finds no benefit of the therapy over usual care — but leaves lingering questions due to major design differences. The ROSE trial was a multicenter randomized trial in [… read more]

May 282019
 
Pitfalls when using Doppler Ultrasound to Measure Peripheral Flow: A Lecture from the Hospitalist & Resuscitationist Conference

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “I am fearful, or suspicious of generalizations … they cannot guide me reliably in making decisions about particular individuals.” -Ruth Bader Ginsburg Between the 22nd and 24th of May, I participated in the “Hospitalist and the Resuscitationist” conference in Montreal, Canada.  I spoke on the stanchions of physiology and evidence [… read more]

May 272019
 
Integrating the Evidence and Physiology of IVC Collapse: A Lecture from the Hospitalist & Resuscitationist Conference in Montreal

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “There is no power for change greater than a community discovering what it cares about.” -Margaret J. Wheatley Between the 22nd and 24th of May, I participated in the galvanic, second-annual “Hospitalist and the Resuscitationist” conference in Montreal, Canada.  The entirety of this meeting was organized by Dr. Philippe Rola [… read more]

Apr 292019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: The Respiratory System Pressure-Volume Curve

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] More than 20 years ago Amato and colleagues reported a significant mortality reduction in ARDS patients who had their ventilator settings guided by the pressure-volume [PV] curve [1].  The 28-day mortality reduction was profound – 71% versus 38% – in favour of the patients who had their positive end-expiratory pressure [… read more]

Apr 282019
 
Open the Lung with Esophageal Manometry to Avoid VV-ECMO?

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “I am suffocated and lost when I have not the bright feeling of progression” -Margaret Fuller A recent letter and review in Critical Care have called for adoption of the ‘Open Lung Approach’ to patients with severe ARDS.  More specifically, in refractory ARDS whilst prone, it is argued that esophageal [… read more]

Apr 162019
 
More than 90% of sepsis deaths are unpreventable, study concludes

“Nihilist” is one of the harshest insults that can be lobbed at a physician. Even while one knows intellectually that every patient can’t be saved, it’s considered odious to openly acknowledge that actuarial reality. Accepting the truth that some patients will inevitably die despite our best efforts is seen by some as the threshold of [… read more]

Apr 142019
 
Titrating PEEP using esophageal pressures did not improve ARDS outcomes (EPVent-2)

In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), using pleural pressure to adjust positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has long been considered a cumbersome but theoretically ideal technique to optimize ventilator management. Using esophageal pressure as a surrogate for pleural pressure can allow one to calculate and minimize the transpulmonary pressure gradient, elevations in which are the putative [… read more]

Apr 142019
 
Overnight in-house intensivists don't clearly improve care: Review

A review of studies comparing 24/7 in-house intensivist physician coverage with less-intensive models (with no intensivist in the ICU overnight) found no clear or consistent benefits associated with in-house intensivist coverage. Authors informally reviewed about 50 previous studies and meta-analyses. They concluded that in-house intensivists overnight might reduce ICU length of stay by a few [… read more]

Apr 072019
 
Bag-mask ventilation during intubation in ICU prevents severe hypoxemia

A randomized trial confirmed what most intensivists have long believed and practiced: in the moments before endotracheal intubation, we should help patients achieve the highest arterial oxygen saturation possible, using bag-mask ventilation (BMV). This seems self evident — why wouldn’t we? Bag-mask ventilation can distend the stomach with air, potentially increasing the risk for vomiting [… read more]

Apr 072019
 
Early norepinephrine improved septic shock, prevented pulmonary edema

Guidelines advise physicians give large boluses of intravenous crystalloid infusions (two to three liters, generally) to patients with septic shock. Vasopressors are typically begun only if patients’ blood pressure remains low after fluid administration. A vocal minority of researchers have advised against delaying vasopressors in septic shock, arguing that norepinephrine, not intravenous fluid, is the [… read more]