Feb 092020
 
Vitamin C didn't improve septic shock in VITAMINS trial

A new randomized trial showed no benefit from intravenous vitamin C in patients with sepsis, but delays in treatment baked into the trial design will keep hope alive for true believers in the novel therapy. Vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine have been promoted as a lifesaving adjunctive therapy for septic shock, based on anecdotal data [… read more]

Feb 092020
 
The ‘Lacto-Bolo Reflex’

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “Sich regen bringt Segen” -German proverb Background It is an overcast day in Bern, Switzerland.  I have recently left Zermatt, having had the honour and pleasure of speaking at ‘The Big Sick’ conference.  I spent the day roaming the narrowed passages of this old, beautiful city.  In the midst of my [… read more]

Jan 202020
 
Adding Vitamin D no help in critical illness, even in deficient patients

Vitamin D supplementation brought no measurable benefits to vitamin D-deficient critically ill patients, in a large randomized trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Vitamin D supplementation has long been hoped for as a potential lifesaving therapy in critical illness. Many critically ill patients are vitamin D deficient, and deficiency increases the risk [… read more]

Jan 132020
 
PulmCCM's Best of 2019

Best of 2019 on PulmCCM: Keep O2 saturations at 96% or below for hospitalized patients, says expert panel Major asthma guideline update: ICS-LABA as-needed replaces albuterol 2019 IDSA Guidelines for Community Acquired Pneumonia Prolonged hypothermia improved neurologic outcomes after non-shockable cardiac arrests Hospitals should not implement one-hour sepsis bundles, say SCCM and ACEP Vitamin C [… read more]

Jan 062020
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Shorthand Equations for Respiratory System Power

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] Background This synopsis will address the basic geometric calculation of respiratory system work for a single breath [in joules] and power [i.e. joules/seconds or watts] which is work multiplied by the respiratory rate.  This geometric approach will then be used to explain two shorthand equations – the second of which was [… read more]

Jan 052020
 
New Guideline for Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

New Guideline Emphasizes Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis with All-Oral Regimens for MDR-TB Patients The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America have published an official clinical guideline on the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in the Nov. 15 American Journal of Respiratory and [… read more]

Jan 052020
 
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease increasing across U.S.

by Zeena Nackerdien PhD, CME Writer, MedPage Today Recent estimates point to a rise in NTM lung disease in the U.S., particularly among those older than 50 or those with chronic underlying lung diseases, such as non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and emphysema. According to a 1997-2007 estimate of the Medicare population (≥65 years old), NTM lung [… read more]

Dec 272019
 
The PHARLAP Trial: Recruitment Maneuvers Buy Stairway to Heaven?

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] “Dying is a wild night and a new road.” -Emily Dickinson Background In 2006, a recruitment maneuver to achieve an ‘open lung’ was circulated; it has since been dubbed ‘stairway recruitment’ given its stepwise upthrusts in airway pressure [see figure 1]: Plodding up this ladder of airway pressure was meant to [… read more]

Dec 212019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Asthmatic Mechanics

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] Recently, Josh Farkas and Scott Weingart gave a series of engrossing posts and podcasts on asthma.  I especially liked their deliberations on mechanical ventilation which inspired me – no pun intended – to create a vodcast of my own and, like a novice troubleshooting a ventilator alarm, poke and prod at [… read more]

Dec 132019
 
Adjusting D-dimer cutoffs could safely eliminate many CT angiograms to rule out PE

By Salynn Boyles, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today Tweaking a widely accepted strategy for assessing pulmonary embolism risk ruled out thrombosis and reduced chest imaging by a third among low-risk patients enrolled in a prospective study. Assessment of clinical pretest probability (C-PTP, calculated by the Wells score) and blood D-dimer level are used to assess pulmonary embolism [… read more]

Dec 122019
 
Patients who say they're allergic to penicillin are usually wrong

More than 32 million people in the U.S. have reported penicillin allergies — about 10% of the population. But almost 95% of them are not penicillin-allergic, and are removing themselves from eligibility for ideal antibiotic treatments, according to a review in JAMA. “More than 1 in 10 people who seek medical care self-report a history [… read more]

Dec 122019
 
Inhaled steroids may not work for half of asthma patients

Inhaled corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for persistent asthma for decades. A new trial suggests that for the ~50% of asthma patients with low sputum eosinophils, inhaled steroids are no better than placebo, and neither was tiotropium. Treatment with the inhaled glucocorticoid mometasone or the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium resulted in similar outcomes [… read more]

Dec 062019
 
New tissue test for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis changes the diagnostic game

Medicare announced it will now pay for a new molecular tissue test for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, called the Envisia Genomic Classifier (Veracyte). The availability of the new assay reshuffles the algorithm for the diagnosis of IPF, forcing consideration of transbronchial biopsy in some patients. However, professional societies do not yet endorse its general use. The [… read more]

Dec 062019
 
Navigational bronchoscopy real-world diagnostic yields reported

Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) can allow biopsy of peripheral pulmonary nodules that are usually not accessible with conventional bronchoscopy. Navigational bronchoscopy requires specialized training and equipment costing hundreds of thousands of dollars, and is not widely available outside urban centers. Multiple studies have reported varying yields and complication rates with ENB, but most have been [… read more]

Dec 052019
 
Intubating robots are coming for your job (someday)

Undergraduate biomedical engineering students have developed the first prototype of a laryngoscope blade whose future iterations could allow novices or robots to intubate patients as well as expert humans. The new laryngoscope blade has embedded force sensors that calculate its location in the airway. The sensors were trained using machine learning, with tactile patterns generated [… read more]

Nov 302019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Pulmonary Embolism & Right Ventricular Ischemia

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] Commonly, we are sold that acute pulmonary thromboembolism [PE] burns the right ventricular [RV] candle at both ends.  This is because perfusion of the right coronary artery [RCA] is mediated by both its upstream mean arterial pressure [MAP] and downstream right ventricular end-diastolic pressure [RVEDP].  Given that a PE may decrease [… read more]

Nov 242019
 
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: Pulmonary Embolism & Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD [@heart_lung] What if I told you that in acute pulmonary thromboembolism [PE] that the initiation of intravenous norepinephrine [NE] decreases the calculated pulmonary vascular resistance [cPVR]?  Would you believe me?  Certainly, you would trust that an infusion of a thrombolytic does so.  Of great interest, both NE and thrombolytics decrease the cPVR [… read more]

Nov 172019
 
Vitamin E acetate in THC liquid is major cause of vaping lung injury, says CDC

The CDC has concluded that vitamin E acetate in vaping oils containing THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is responsible for many cases of vaping-related lung injury. There have been over 2,051 confirmed and probable cases of e-cigarette or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI), with 39 deaths. CDC made its advisement based on the consistent presence of vitamin E acetate [… read more]