PulmCCM - Page 4 of 43 - All the best in pulmonary & critical care
Oct 102014
Transfusion for hemoglobin above 7 g/dL: no benefit in septic shock (TRISS Trial)

Blood transfusions have been a central component of protocols for care of severe sepsis and septic shock, ever since the single-center 2001 Rivers trial included them in its interventions. Any benefit (or harm) caused by red cell transfusion independently was unknowable, and so the therapy became standard care as part of the so-called sepsis bundle. The Surviving [… read more]

Oct 052014
Are traditional protocols for goal directed therapy for sepsis dead? (ARISE trial)

Update: As astute commenters have mentioned below, and as I stated in our post on the ProCESS trial, protocols of some kind could still have a place in the care of sepsis if they ensure more rapid recognition and thorough treatment. Accordingly, I changed the headline to clarify that it’s only traditional sepsis protocols to which I refer, not the [… read more]

Sep 122014

All the best in the pulmonary and critical care medicine literature from our ongoing journal survey. Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups to stay up to date. Thrombolytics for Pulmonary Embolism: New Metaanalysis Most patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE with shock) should receive thrombolytics, but it’s unclear from randomized trial data which patients with submassive pulmonary embolism [… read more]

Sep 052014
New 2014 Pulmonary Hypertension guidelines released

The American College of Chest Physicians (unaffiliated with PulmCCM) published its new consensus guidelines in August 2014 for the drug treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). They’re free to view on the Chest website, and well worth a look. Remember that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is but one small subset (“Group 1”) of the much larger [… read more]

Sep 012014
ICU Physiology in 1000 Words: The Hemodynamics of Prone

ICU Physiology in 1,000 Words  “The Hemodynamics of Prone” by Jon-Emile S. Kenny MD A physiological maelstrom has recently swirled about the hemodynamic effects of the prone position in severe ARDS [1-5]; but how exactly does this maneuver alter the cardiovascular system?  A good approach to this problem is a Guytonian one whereby we consider [… read more]

Aug 162014
Which cancer patients need prophylaxis for DVT and pulmonary embolism?

People with cancer have the highest rates of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the risk of venous thromboembolism varies widely by cancer type and between patients. Daily anticoagulant use can reduce the risk of DVT and pulmonary embolism, but at a cost of increased bleeding risk, patient inconvenience and discomfort, and cost. [… read more]

Jul 302014
What are Ventilator-Associated Events (and why should you care)?

Have you heard of ventilator-associated events (VAEs)? Like it or not, this neologism of healthcare-speak is coming to an ICU near you soon. Here’s the lowdown on VAEs and why they matter to the practicing intensivist. What are Ventilator-Associated Events? Ventilator-associated events are an invention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), created in [… read more]

Jul 202014
PulmCCM Roundup #5

The PulmCCM Roundup gathers all the best in pulmonary and critical care from around the web.  Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups. Statins Fail for COPD, ARDS Statins have been optimistically tested as a tonic for everything from diabetes to dementia — so far, without success. That consistency was maintained in 2 recent trials showing statins’ [… read more]

Jul 172014
Inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava: What is it telling us?

image: EM Ultrasonography ICU Physiology in 1,000 Words: “Inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava: What is it telling us?” Jon-Emile S. Kenny M.D. With the dissemination of small, portable, ultrasound devices [or SPUDs], it seems that it is every house-officer’s dream to own the ability and wherewithal to place an ultrasound probe on a [… read more]

Jul 112014
Prone positioning reduces ARDS mortality by 26%: meta-analysis

Image: Rotoprone Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) injures the lungs in a heterogeneous pattern, and the damaged areas are particularly vulnerable to further ventilator-induced lung injury. This is why a lung-protective ventilator strategy using low tidal volumes reduces mortality from ARDS, experts believe. Tidal volumes of 6 mL/kg ideal body weight (calculated from height) using conventional [… read more]

Jul 082014
Using bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate ILD

Using BAL Cellular Analysis in Interstitial Lung Disease The role of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in diagnosing and managing patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has always been uncertain and controversial. BAL findings are usually nonspecific, suggesting rather than proving the existence of any particular noninfectious condition (including interstitial lung disease). That said, in patients with [… read more]

Jun 272014
Azithromycin for COPD exacerbations: 2014 Update

Azithromycin to Prevent COPD Exacerbations: What’s New? By Abhishek Biswas, MD Multiple previous studies have suggested likely benefits from using azithromycin as an immunomodulator for cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, post-transplant obliterative bronchiolitis and COPD. This month, a new Cochrane analysis and clinical review in JAMA concludes that “continuous macrolide antibiotic use for prophylaxis [is] associated with a [… read more]

Jun 262014
CPAP better than oxygen for obstructive sleep apnea

About half of people diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can’t or won’t use the most effective therapy, overnight continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Most people with untreated OSA experience multiple episodes of hypoxemia — sometimes hundreds per night. For many patients declining CPAP treatment, their doctors provide overnight oxygen, in the hope that it might [… read more]

Jun 082014
PulmCCM Roundup #4

All the best in pulmonary and critical care from around the web. Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups. Asthma Childhood obesity increases the risk for asthma, and obesity is also strongly associated with asthma in adults. The mechanisms are likely multiple, complex and interdependent (pro-inflammatory mediators, etc.), not simply causative. Losing weight does seem to improve [… read more]

Jun 052014
Tenecteplase for submassive PE: more conflicting evidence (TOPCOAT)

By Parth Rali, MD and Marvin Balaan, MD Submassive pulmonary emboli (PE) are those that are severe enough to produce right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiogram or elevated biomarkers (mainly troponin), but not hemodynamic instability (i.e., systemic blood pressure and cardiac output are preserved). The management of the patient with submassive PE is a matter of controversy with several [… read more]

May 302014
N-acetylcysteine: no benefit in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

NAC for IPF: Fail (PANTHER-IPF Wrap-Up) Long ago, when pulmonologists were more ingenuous (in 2000), flawed clinical trials convinced the American Thoracic Society to recommend prednisone and either azathioprine or cyclophosphamide in its consensus guideline for some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). By not including a true control arm, the also-flawed follow-up 2005 IFIGENIA trial reinforced this [… read more]

May 272014
Nintedanib protects lung function, prevents exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (INPULSIS)

In 2011 PulmCCM reported the findings of the phase 2 TOMORROW study, showing Boehringer Ingelheim’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor code-named BIBF 1120 reduced lung function decline and prevented exacerbations in people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). At the 2014 American Thoracic Society annual meeting and in the New England Journal of Medicine, investigators announced their latest [… read more]

May 232014
Pirfenidone prolongs survival, preserves lung function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ASCEND)

For idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis treatment pirfenidone, the third time wasn’t the charm; the fourth was. After reducing decline in forced vital capacity over one year in a Japanese trial of 275 IPF patients, pirfenidone went one-and-one in the multinational CAPACITY trials (n=779), meeting the primary outcome of FVC preservation in one but not the other. [… read more]

May 222014
Medicare bucks USPSTF, denies coverage for lung cancer screening

The Centers for Medcare and Medcaid Services sent lung cancer screening’s forward momentum into a tailspin last month, when Medicare’s advisory panel shocked observers by voting  against covering lung cancer screening with annual low dose chest CT as a standard benefit. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) had already recommended lung cancer screening be [… read more]