Hersh et al analyzed spirometry and patient-reported data on family history from the COPDGene study, comparing 821 people with COPD to 776 smoking controls. Subject-recalled parental history of COPD had an odds ratio of 1.7 for COPD in the subject. The population attributable risk from family history for COPD was 18.6%. They acknowledge the vulnerability [... read more]
Mavros et al did the heavy lifting required to review 998 studies relating in some way to atelectasis and postoperative fever. They felt only 8 of those studies deserved analysis (990 were excluded either for not reporting sufficient data, or not focusing on the question at hand). One study reported an association between atelectasis and [... read more]
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: The Final Frontier. No, it’s not the new Star Trek movie featuring a breathless William Shatner. It’s Todd JL, Palmer SM’s review on BOS, the lung transplantation scourge, in CHEST 2011;140:502-508.
Low physical activity is associated with mortality in COPD, but until now, only on the basis of self-reported activity levels. Waschki et al prospectively followed 170 people (~75% men, ~65 years old) with stable COPD for 48 months. Besides spirometry (mean FEV1 56% predicted), the investigators also collected other data expected to be predictive, including [... read more]
Kuniyoshi et al prospectively observed people admitted to Mayo for myocardial infarction, performing polysomnography and measuring flow-mediated dilation in their brachial arteries. A whopping 69% (45 of 64) were found to have obstructive sleep apnea. Those with moderate to severe OSA had poorer arterial responsiveness, a surrogate marker for subsequent cardiovascular risk, compared to people [... read more]
Brown et al report that 21% of patients in the REVEAL registry were diagnosed with IPAH >2 years after the onset of symptoms. Younger patients, and those picking up a diagnosis of obstructive lung disease or sleep apnea along the way, were more likely to have a delay in diagnosis. CHEST 2011;140:19-26.
Lore has it that pure-right sided heart disease in pulmonary arterial hypertension doesn’t cause pleural effusions. Luo et al report here that it does, in 35 of 89 people (39%) with connective-tissue disease-related PAH. (29 of the 35 had no other discernible cause for the effusion.) CHEST 2011;140:42-47. Their group previously reported that people with [... read more]
The Research Agenda in ICU Telemedicine: A Statement From the Critical Care Societies Collaborative. Kahn JM et al. CHEST 2011;140:230-238.
A retrospective review of 521 patients in one Virginia center from 2000-2009, by Nathan SD et al. CHEST 2011;140:221-229
Yao et al report a meta-analysis of 8 studies (n=728) measured hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate in asthmatics. Overall, concentration of H2O2 did distinguish asthmatics from non-asthmatics, and H2O2 levels correlated with worsening asthma control and with declining FEV1. CHEST 2011;140:108-116.
Glycemic Control in the ICU. Egi M et al. CHEST 2011;140:212-220. Endocrine, hyperglycemia, review.
Chapman et al extended their 6-month Phase III trial for once-daily long-acting beta agonist indacaterol for another 6 months. FEV1 improvements of 170 mL, reduced albuterol use of 1 puff / day, and slight absolute decreases in exacerbation rates were all preserved, without evidence of tolerance or increased adverse events. The drug made about 24% [... read more]
Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells and Respiratory Disease. Jones CP, Rankin SM. CHEST 2011;140:205-211.
Flexible pressure CPAP reduces pressure briefly during expiration, to try to make it more comfortable. Bakker & Marshall meta-analyzed 10 randomized trials in >500 patients testing flexible pressure vs standard CPAP in people with obstructive sleep apnea; there were no differences in compliance or any other outcome. CHEST 2011;139:1322-1330.
Zager et al examined registry data on 38,917 patients admitted to Beth Israel and Brigham & Women’s hospitals between 1997-2007, and concluded that low socioeconomic status (as determined by census tract neighborhood of residence) did not influence 30- or 365-day mortality after admission to these hospitals’ ICU. CHEST 2011;139:1368-1379.
Hargreave and Nair (PRO) argue the boutique technique is underrated and underused, citing trials showing improvement in severe asthma outcomes when sputum eosinophils are used to guide therapy (1, 2, and studies on IL-5 blockers). Peters (CON) questions the findings of those trials, doubts eosinophil count adds to clinical measures of asthma control, and compares [... read more]
Wrist actigraphy: Martin JL, Hakim AD. CHEST 2011;139:1514-1527.
In severe congestive heart failure, lymphatic drainage can increase 10-fold. Pastis et al hypothesize this could result in enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. They retrospectively examined chest CT scans for 118 patients undergoing heart transplantation. Fifty-three had mediastinal LNs > 1 cm. In the 9 who had post-transplant CT scans available, mediastinal lymph nodes shrank after [... read more]
Masclans et al followed 38 patients with ARDS in 3 ICUs for 6 months. Health-related quality of life (Nottingham Test Profile) was lower than expected at 6 months, with 40% reporting limitations in daily activities mainly due to low energy, mobility and social functioning. Mild radiographic abnormalities and restrictive physiology were usually present on HRCT [... read more]
After 25 years of declines in coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (thanks to federal regulation of tolerable concentrations of coal dust and radiographic surveillance of miners), CWP and progressive massive fibrosis have been on the upswing since 2001, killing or disabling dozens of relatively young miners. Wade et al describe the trend in a cohort of 138 [... read more]