Society Journal 1 Archives - PulmCCM
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Sep 052014
 
New 2014 Pulmonary Hypertension guidelines released

The American College of Chest Physicians (unaffiliated with PulmCCM) published its new consensus guidelines in August 2014 for the drug treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). They’re free to view on the Chest website, and well worth a look. Remember that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is but one small subset (“Group 1″) of the much larger [... read more]

Jul 202014
 
PulmCCM Roundup #5

The PulmCCM Roundup gathers all the best in pulmonary and critical care from around the web.  Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups. Statins Fail for COPD, ARDS Statins have been optimistically tested as a tonic for everything from diabetes to dementia — so far, without success. That consistency was maintained in 2 recent trials showing statins’ [... read more]

Jun 082014
 
PulmCCM Roundup #4

All the best in pulmonary and critical care from around the web. Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups. Asthma Childhood obesity increases the risk for asthma, and obesity is also strongly associated with asthma in adults. The mechanisms are likely multiple, complex and interdependent (pro-inflammatory mediators, etc.), not simply causative. Losing weight does seem to improve [... read more]

May 162014
 
How to provide nutrition for critically ill patients (Review)

Nutritional Support During Critical Illness This PulmCCM topic review will be periodically updated and expanded as new research is published. Originally published 22 September 2013. Most recent update: 16 May 2013. During critical illness, catabolism (breakdown of muscle protein, fat and other complex molecules) occurs faster than anabolism (synthesis of these same macromolecules). Historically, the [... read more]

Apr 112014
 
PulmCCM Roundup #3

PulmCCM Roundup #3 All the best in pulmonary and critical care we’ve found lately. Browse all the PulmCCM Roundups. Surviving Sepsis Campaign Responds to ProCESS Trial In the wake of the ProCESS trial demonstrating no benefit from use of protocols for septic shock, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign released a statement in which they “continue to recommend [... read more]

Feb 202014
 
Sublobar resections as good as lobectomy for stage IA GGO lung cancer?

The new USPSTF lung cancer screening guidelines are about to produce an enormous wave of abnormal chest CTs, with suspicious pulmonary nodules in millions of current and former U.S. smokers. Many will be surgically removed, and thousands of people will be saved from premature death from lung cancer. That’s great news — mostly. Less widely [... read more]

Feb 112014
 
Vitamin D: no relationship to COPD exacerbations

After a stupefying amount of research on vitamin D — with 70 vitamin D studies published in PubMed in January 2014 alone — there is no consistent signal tying vitamin D supplementation to improvement in any health condition. A recent “futility analysis” (a form of meta-analysis) of 40 randomized trials suggests vitamin D does not [... read more]

Feb 042014
 
Can pulmonologists do their own on-site cytopathology during bronchoscopy?

On-site, intra-procedure cytopathologic examination of aspirated tissue during transbronchial needle aspiration (either by EBUS or “blind” approach) is probably helpful during bronchoscopy. Why wouldn’t it be? You’ve got a trained professional there to tell you when you’ve made the diagnosis and can stop taking biopsies. Diagnostic yield should go up, complications down. Randomized trials have [... read more]

Nov 282013
 
CPAP for sleep apnea improved drug-resistant hypertension

Most people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have high blood pressure (hypertension), but treating OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to reduce blood pressure only minimally (by about 2.5 mm Hg). A randomized trial in the November 2013 Chest suggests that in people with severe drug-resistant hypertension with OSA, CPAP can [... read more]

Nov 062013
 
Olodaterol, a new once-daily LABA, proven effective for COPD

Olodaterol Olodaterol, a new once-daily inhaled long-acting beta agonist, improved lung function and exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in two randomized trials (n=199) presented by Gregory Feldman et al at the Chest 2013 meeting in Chicago. The new once-daily LABA olodaterol will reportedly be marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim under the trade name Striverdi [... read more]

Oct 312013
 
Breo Ellipta (vilanterol/fluticasone) matches Advair in RCT

Breo Ellipta (GlaxoSmithKline) is the first FDA-approved combination product with a once-daily long acting beta agonist (vilanterol) and inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone). Additional once daily combination ICS/LABA and LABA/antimuscarinics are expected to launch over the next decade, increasing the options for treatment of asthma and COPD. GSK got good news in the October Chest, with the publication [... read more]

Aug 162013
 
How to manage lung cancer when resection is high risk

Management of Lung Cancer in High Surgical Risk Patients By Blair Westerly, MD We all hope that surgical resection is an option for our unfortunate patients diagnosed with lung cancer.  However, as a consequence of the epidemiology of stage I non-small cell lung cancer, the standard of care, lobectomy with systematic mediastinal lymph node evaluation, [... read more]

Aug 032013
 
Oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces COPD exacerbations in RCT

image: Vitacost N-acetylcysteine (NAC) Improves COPD Outcomes Oxidative stress (imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants) is part of the story of how COPD causes symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. Cigarette smoke is the main source of oxidation damage in the lungs leading to COPD, but even after they quit smoking, people with COPD still [... read more]

Jun 072013
 
How safe is EBUS? Complication rates <1% at experienced centers

image: Olympus EBUS Complication Rates <1% at Experienced Centers Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) — an ultrasound probe on the tip of a bronchoscope — allows real-time viewing of tissues beyond the bronchial wall. It enables more accurate and safer needle biopsies of lymph nodes and masses that abut the bronchial wall. EBUS is an exciting new [... read more]

Jun 022013
 
How to prevent COPD exacerbations

How to Prevent Acute COPD Exacerbations Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major problem for many people living with COPD. Acute exacerbations or attacks occur more often in people with more severe COPD (about 1-2 per year), and these disease flares may either signal or cause a more rapid progression of [... read more]

Apr 172013
 
How dangerous are ground glass nodules over time?

image: Radiology Assistant Ground-Glass Nodules: If Growing, Assume Cancer Blair Westerly, MD The more CT scans that are performed, the more ground-glass opacities (GGO’s) are seen and what to do with these abnormalities can be difficult to ascertain for clinicians. With the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial showing a mortality benefit from low dose CT [... read more]

Mar 242013
 
Passive leg raise offers promise in predicting fluid responsiveness

“Like this … kind of” Passive Leg Raise Improved Management of Patients in Shock* (*some assembly required) by Blair Westerly, MD Providing the right amount of fluid is vital in a critically ill patient, as both too little and too much can result in poor outcomes. Yet even with this understanding, the clinical assessment of [... read more]

Jan 292013
 
Forget "embolic burden" of pulmonary embolism: location is everything

In Most Patients with Pulmonary Embolism, Central Clot is Worse than Peripheral by Brett Ley, MD Pulmonary embolism (PE) presents with a wide range of clinical severity and course. Management decisions (level of care, length of observation, and aggressive therapies such as thrombolysis) are generally based on a patient’s risk of a poor outcome. Guidelines recommend risk [... read more]

Jan 102013
 
Does GERD really cause chronic cough?

Chronic Cough and GERD: A Tangled Connection by Michael Peters, MD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered to be one of the cardinal causes of chronic cough. A study in Chest challenges that fundamental concept, but comes up short in refuting it. What They Did Samantha Decalmer, Rachel Stovold, Jaclyn A. Smith et al conducted [... read more]

Jan 032013
 
Can procalcitonin help guide therapy for suspected pneumonia & other infections? (Review)

Procalcitonin to Guide Treatment of Pneumonia (More PulmCCM Topic Reviews) With mounting evidence for its utility as a biomarker for pneumonia, procalcitonin is one of the hottest 2012 topics in pulmonary & critical care. Procalcitonin tends to rise quickly as bacterial infections (but not viral infections) develop, increase with the severity of infection, and decline [... read more]