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Priou et al followed 130 patients with OHS after initiation with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Mean follow up was 4 years. Most (96) were started on NPPV in the stable state; 38 had had an acute hypercapneic exacerbation. Survival at 1 year was 97.5%; 2 years (93%); 3 years (88%); 5 years (77%). The large majority (80%) were still using NPPV at 5 years. CHEST 2010;138:84-90. FREE FULL TEXT

The reported mortality agrees with a previously reported series in J Intern Med 2001.

A previously reported cohort by Nowbar et al in Am J Med 2004 found the mortality of untreated OHS was 23% at 18 months.

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Long-term outcome and mortality of obesity hypoventilation syndrome